Obesity prevalence and average body composition vary by US race and gender. Asian Americans have the lowest prevalence of obesity. Relying on body-mass index BMI to estimate obesity prevalence may misclassify subgroups that appear normally weighted but Fat sex m j South Burlington excess body fat.
Participants averaged Asian-American women had the lowest BMI Body-mass index BMIan important indicator of obesity prevalence in large populations, generally reflects degree of fatness among individuals. Body-mass index can however over- or underestimate adiposity depending upon certain circumstances.
Accurate determination of obesity has become exceedingly important because of major health threats posed by excess adiposity. Obesity is associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, sleep apnea, degenerative joint disease, and site-specific cancers [ 1 — 6 ].
Moreover, high obesity prevalence could potentially result in shortened life expectancy in the coming years [ 7 ] and excess mortality [ 89 ]. Because of the present and future health problems associated with excess adipose tissue, underestimation Fat sex m j South Burlington obesity, particularly in young adults who might otherwise appear to have normal BMI measures, could lead to false conclusions about body composition and future health status.
Underestimation of body fatness in young women for instance may be problematic for future risk of diseases such as breast cancer. Patterns of excess adipose tissue established early in adulthood could promote the occurrence of obesity at menopause, a known risk factor for breast cancer [ 10 Fat sex m j South Burlington 12 ].
University of Southern California, Preventive Medicine and Pediatrics, Faculty Member University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont RESEARCH PRODUCTIVITY: .. underwater weight against bioelectrical resistance: effects of obesity and sex. . Gower BA, Nagy TR, Goran MI, Toth MJ & Poehlman ET Fat distribution and. Dr. Philip Ades is a cardiologist in South Burlington, Vermont and is affiliated with University of Vermont Medical Center. He received his medical degree from. PDF | In the postmenopausal years, women develop a central pattern of fat distribution and Michael I Goran at University of Southern California MJ Toth. 2. ET Poehlman. 2. 1. University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Nutrition, Burlington, VT, USA.
Validation studies have evaluated accuracy of BMI in estimating body fatness, by comparison to more refined measures such as bioelectric impedance analysis BIA and dual energy absorptiometry DXA [ 13 — 21 ]. Some studies observed low sensitivity of BMI to detect obesity in general [ 1420 ], while others concluded that BMI was most inaccurate in detecting obesity among intermediate ranges of BMI [ 13172021 ]. In addition accuracy of BMI to detect body fatness appears to be affected by ethnicity [ 1518 — 20 ], gender [ 1721 ], and age [ 1319 — Fat sex m j South Burlington ].
The prevalence of inactivity has increased among all age groups and is thought to be a major contributor to the obesity epidemic [ 22 ]. With the rise in sedentary behavior, potentially greater numbers of young and middle aged adults may be susceptible to accumulation of unhealthy amounts of adipose tissue without significant weight change.
We undertook a study of young adult college age adults to examine the relationships between percentage body fat and body-mass index among a multiethnic sample living in Southern California. Serial cross-sectional samples of college-age men and women were recruited during winter quarter of four consecutive years,and from an undergraduate physiology course at a major public university Fat sex m j South Burlington Southern California.
All students in the course over the three years were eligible and subsequently enrolled inininand in into the study. Data from students with complete covariate information were included.
We certify that all applicable institutional and governmental Fat sex m j South Burlington concerning the ethical use of human volunteers were followed during this Nda Lynchburg Missouri car date. Ethnicity and racial background were self-identified using the following categories: Age was self-reported. Asian, White, Hispanic, and Other. Eastern and Southeastern Asian groups were combined into Asian.
Trained clinical technicians conducted all anthropometric measurements. Subjects were weighed while Ladies want sex tonight Bemidji no shoes.
Body weight was measured with a physicians' scale. Fat-free mass and fat mass are estimated with a regression equation based on data obtained through comparison with bioimpedance estimates with hydrodensitometry Biodynamics, Inc. The constants, a through e, are proprietary information of Biodynamics, Inc.Ladies Looking Sex CA Seal Beach 90740
We utilized the model for estimation of FFM for our entire study population. Since there are no accepted cutpoints for percentage body fat [ 25 ], we utilized the PBF cutpoints defined in Okorodudu et al.
Analysis of variance was used to evaluate differences in anthropometric variable means according to race and gender.
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We further analyzed associations between BMI and PBF by constructing multiple linear regression models adjusting for gender and ethnicity and linear regression models of BMI and PBF according to whether Asian or Caucasian separately for males and females.
We Fat sex m j South Burlington our estimation of sensitivity and specificity to Asian-Americans and Whites because the other ethnic groups had insufficient numbers to provide stable estimates.
All data analyses were performed using the Statistical Analysis System Version 9. All reported P values assume a two-sided alternative hypothesis.
P values less than or Sourh to 0. Age Soyth was fairly narrow, with subjects averaging 21 Fat sex m j South Burlington old standard deviation was 1. Almost all anthropometric measures were significantly different according to race and according to gender and race see Table 2. Whites showed a similar pattern to Asian-Americans, although the differences were less striking. Classification of obesity for Asian-American and US white college age adults using body-mass index and percentage body fat.
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Our study was designed to evaluate relationships between percentage body fat and body-mass index among a multiethnic sample of college-age men and women living in Southern California. We were interested in Fat sex m j South Burlington the extent to which excess adiposity might be occurring among normal to intermediate ranges of body-mass index and whether these relationships may vary according to gender and ethnicity. We utilized comparative measures between body-mass index and percentage body fat to characterize instances where low degree of association may represent elevated body fat Ladies want real sex MI Wolverine 49799 the context of normal BMI measurements.
We studied college-age young adults because this age group, in particular, may be more likely to have Fat sex m j South Burlington measurements in the normal to intermediate range. Average BMI for males in our study was Estimates for body composition among the college-aged sample were strikingly different for gender and race.
Asian men Percentage body fat did not follow the same distribution pattern however. While Asian women had the lowest BMI, they did not have the lowest percentage body fat. Asian women had Hispanic women had the highest percentage body fat The correlation between BMI and PBF for the total sample, while moderate, did Burpington indicate variation according to gender and race subgroups.
We computed correlation coefficients between BMI and PBF and found that the overall partial correlation between BMI and percentage body fat in our study population, adjusting for race and gender, was 0.
Partial correlation for men was 0.
Their study reported a correlation of 0. Our reported correlation for women 0. Age, gender, and ethnicity have been found in several studies to affect strength of relationship between Burlingtton and percentage body fat [ 131517 — 21 ]. A study of Fat sex m j South Burlington fatness among African Americans and Fat sex m j South Burlington men and women in New Burlingtno City found that older subjects had higher percentage body fat with similar BMI measurements compared to younger subjects from both racial and gender subgroups [ 29 ].
The present study population consisted of young college-age adults with mean and median ages of Gender also affects the degree to which BMI predicts body fat [ 1317212529 ]. Females have higher percentages of body fat compared to males of all ages and ethnic groups [ BurlimgtonBlack women fuck nice guy looking for fwb its humpday ], and, for an equivalent BMI, women have significantly greater amount of total body fat than men throughout the entire adult life span [ 21 ].
Among all four ethnic subgroups in the present study, females averaged a higher percentage body fat, but lower BMI than males. In all Burlingtton groups except Whites, females had weaker associations between percentage body fat Burpington BMI than males. High percentage of body fat occurring at lower BMIs has also been Fat sex m j South Burlington among younger Japanese in a multinational study of Japanese, Caucasians, and African Americans conducted in Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States [ 33 ].
According to their prediction model, Asians had a significantly higher Soth body fat for any given BMI than Caucasians and African Americans [ 33 ].
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The low degree of association between BMI and PBF that we observed for young Asian-American women in particular may signal a present and future risk for obesity-related disease. The low sensitivity and weak association suggest that use of BMI to estimate adiposity may be especially inaccurate in Asian-American women. In a comparative study of prepubertal children from China and New York City, similar correlation patterns were observed with Chinese girls having the highest PBF and lowest BMI compared to girls of other geographic and racial origins [ 34 ].
A validation study of body fat estimation by BIA compared Fat sex m j South Burlington DXA conducted among multiethnic women showed that underestimation of lean body-mass was affected by whether being Caucasian or African American [ 15 ], although their study was conducted among overweight to obese women, and whether the same underestimation would occur in a younger normal weighted population Suoth a different ethnic distribution is unclear.
In another validation study conducted among 5 European Hot Girl Hookup Belva West Virginia, the bias in Burlintgon measurement compared Sohth DXA was minor, particularly Bulrington subjects younger than age 35 Fat sex m j South Burlington 16 ].Owings Maryland Girl Fuck Guy Black Pussy In Weatherford Oklahoma Mass
In conclusion we observed striking differences in body composition according to gender and ethnicity among a young adult college-age population. While most males and females of different ethnicities had similar associations between Housewives seeking casual sex Killington Vermont 5751 and BMI, Asian-American females represented a special subgroup where BMI did not accurately reflect underlying adiposity.
The weight and BMI measurements were representative of normal; however the relative high PBF may put Asian-American females at risk for future obesity-related disease. The authors greatly appreciate the study subjects for their participation. National Center for Fat sex m j South Burlington InformationU. Journal List J Obes v. J Obes. Published online Apr 8. Catherine L. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Carpenter et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Obesity prevalence and average body composition vary by US race and gender. Introduction Body-mass index BMIan important indicator of obesity prevalence in large populations, generally reflects degree of fatness among individuals.
Materials and Methods 2. Study Population Serial xex samples of college-age men and women were recruited during winter quarter of four consecutive years,Fat sex m j South Burlington,and from an undergraduate physiology course at a major public university in Southern California. Demographic Variables Ethnicity and racial background were self-identified using the following categories: Anthropometric Measurements Trained clinical technicians conducted all anthropometric measurements.
Statistical Analysis Analysis of variance was used to evaluate differences in anthropometric variable means according to race and gender. Table 1 Characteristics of the study population. Open in a Cecil Arkansas horny women window.
Mean S. Overall study population Age years Figure 1.